The new rice policy in Cambodia Cambodia_Agri

참고문헌 Rice Policy Study: Implications ofRice Policy Changes in Vietnam forCambodia’s Rice Policy and RiceProducers in South-Eastern Cambodia

 The new rice policy in CambodiaThe new rice policy was drafted in 2016 and should be launched in 2017. It embraces the keyprinciples of participation, transparency, competitiveness and sustainability. The policy coversmany aspects including production improvements through innovation and more benefit-costanalyses of investment projects, better understanding of demand and competition, strengthenedcoordination among stakeholders, creating the overall big picture and providing a clear visionso that the sector can move forward in a positive manner. 

• Establish a platform for information sharing and policy implementation monitoring:Information about the rice sector is fragmented, incomplete, often unreliable, not widelydisseminated, sporadically analysed and rarely discussed rigorously. This limits theopportunity of evidence-based policy decisions and causes overreaction to news that issometimes poorly verified. The new rice policy requires the establishment of a formalparticipatory platform to share information and monitor policy implementation. It is calledthe Rice Policy Platform (RPP) and consists of government (MEF, MAFF, MOC) and privatesector representatives and farmers. The RPP will promote dialogue between stakeholderson issues related to rice policy implementation. Overall, the aim is to establish a culture ofdialogue and information sharing rather than confrontation. 

• Develop a shared vision based on high quality fragrant rice and higher value: Cambodianeeds a clear vision for the rice sector. Besides being the major source of food security forthe country, rice in Cambodia can have a key role in exports and rural development. Thevision therefore is to promote Cambodia to become a leading exporter of fragrant rice. Thisvision does not contradict the food security function of the rice sector. The new policy isnarrower than the one formulated in 2010
Gather market intelligence about customers and competitors: Cambodia is often thoughtto have low competitiveness. This is largely the result of low productivity at farm level, weaksupply chain management, scarce innovation, poor logistics, lack of branding, bottlenecksin the postharvest system and high energy costs. These factors underpin Cambodia’s verysmall market share in global rice exports. Competitiveness requires strong knowledgeof consumers’ preferences. The new policy requires the establishment of a Rice MarketIntelligence Unit at the Cambodia Rice Federation. The Unit would collect, analyse anddocument information on markets and competitors and ultimately distribute that informationto stakeholders. 

• Increase productivity through adequately funded innovation systems: Cambodia needsto strengthen its research, extension and education systems to promote innovation at allstages along the value chain. The sector needs a combination of land expansion, yieldimprovement and total factor productivity growth that creates income growth for farmersand other actors in the value chain. This requires innovation and determined effort by bothpublic and private sectors through more efficient practices at different levels. Governmentmust therefore recognise and reward innovative private sector actors that can contribute tothe sector’s overall performance. 

• Enhanced supply chain management of rice milling industry: The key actors in the supplychain are millers, farmers and traders. Millers in Cambodia generally rely on traditionalmethods of supply chain management. They collect paddy from collectors, small traders,large traders and small mills that cannot assure the quality, timeliness and prices neededto meet international orders and quality standards. Contract farming in the rice sector is basically absent. To strengthen the supply chain, the policy aims to establish a program toenhance the supply chain management of rice millers and farmers, support the formation ofsuccessful contract farming, benchmark supply chain performance and monitor progress,and build internal stringent requirements within the Cambodia Rice Federation for exportersand millers engaged in export business to have an evidence-based system. 

• Improve rice value chain infrastructure through cost-effective investments: Valuechain infrastructure includes irrigation and drainage systems, market places, warehouses,transport (roads, railways, waterways, ports), energy and postharvest systems. A lot of pastinvestments, whether by the public or private sector, have been considered wasteful orineffective – a grim result given the limited resources available for such investment. Thenew rice policy will include measures to ensure proper assessment of selected projects beforeinvestment, the conduct of detailed reviews and periodic maintenance post investment,and close cooperation with the private sector in any future investment to attain the highestbenefit-cost ratio.

 • Develop a harmonised joint master plan and ensure that it is adequately funded: Thereis a need for a harmonised action plan among different stakeholders. This is important tocreate an overall big picture, eliminate redundancy and align key stakeholders’ activities.For example, the master plan could also include recommendations to focus on specificgeographical areas, with clear targets for producing rice of a specific quality. If a specificprovince or area common to more than one province or area is found to have a comparativeadvantage in producing a specific rice variety, then the budget, services, logistics and otherinputs should be allocated to that province or area to ensure the highest returns. This willmake post-production activities more cost-effective.